This branch of management deals with people management. As we know every successful project depends on great team. In order to do efficient project management manager need to plan carefully, have a good working environment and need to keep the best people to do the planned work. Project manager need to ascertain to keep the team motivated and takes care of any conflicts that will arise during the execution of the project.
Human Resource Management deals with following processes:
• Develop Human Resource Plan
• Acquire Project Team
• Develop Project Team
• Manage Project Team
As mentioned above in the develop human resource plan process one need to plan out exactly which resources you will need, what their roles and responsibilities are and how they will be trained and to make sure team will stay motivated.
The team for the project is acquired using techniques such as negotiation, virtual teams, pre-assignment and acquisition. Once the team has been acquired they will be developed or trained using techniques such as recognition & rewards, interpersonal skills, ground rules, team buliding activities, training and co-location.
Following are the stages of the team development:
• Forming:At this stage, people in the team are still trying to figure out their roles.
• Storming:At this stage, team gets familiar with the project and they start putting their opinions about how the work should be done.
• Norming:At this stage, the team will adjust work habits to help each other.
• Performing:Once everyone understands the problem and what each other are capable; they will start acting as a cohesive unit and being efficient. At this stage, the team is working like a well oiled machine.
• Adjorning:When the work is close to completion, the team starts dealing with the fact that the project is going to be closing soon.
Once the team is ready they will be managed with different kinds of power. The five kinds of power that
project manager typically uses on a project are summarized below:
• Legitimate Power:The power project manager utilizes to assign the work to someone who reports to him directly.
• Reward Power:The power by which Project Manager sets up rewards and recognition for the team.
• Expert Power:The power which project manager (PM) possesses due to his/her technical expertise in particular subject. This will give PM credibility and team will respect him.
• Referent Power:It means that people admire you and are loyal to you.
• Punishment Power:Using this power manager will correct the team member for poor behavior. Always this need to be done one-to-one and in private.
During the project execution conflicts between team members are very common due to various reasons such as priorities, schedules and people. Other than these, there are factors such as personalities, cost and technical opinions which also lead to conflicts. A good project manager knows how to handle conflicts so they don't delay or damage the project. There are various conflict management ways viz. confronting, compromise, collaborating, smoothing, forcing and withdrawl. But the best way is to resolve a conflict is to confront the problem; do the research and figure out what is behind the problem and fix the root cause.
Other than conflict management team need to be motivated during the execution of the project to stay focused and
dedicate their full energy towards achieving the goal of their individual activities assigned.
Project Managers should be familiar with modern theories of motivation and management.
• Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs• McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y• Herzberg's Motivation Hygiene Theory• Expectancy Theory• McClelland's Achievement Theory.
By following the human resource management processes , tools and techniques project manager can lead to a successful project and he/she will also be rewarded.