A Project Management Blog

This page compares NPV vs IRR and describes **difference between NPV and IRR**.

NPV is a process of calculating the present value of cash flows of an investment proposal. This is done using cost of capital(k) as appropriate discounting rate and finding out the net present value(NPV) by substracting the present value of cash inflows from the present values of cash outflows.

Where CI and CO are future cash inflow and cash outflows and k is the cost of capital.

Cost of capital(k) is the rate of return required by the suppliers of the finances such as
banks or other financers. It is used as a cutoff rate, hurdle rate or discount rate.
Using the **NPV** method, projects are be ranked in order of highest NPV's.
Changing the value of "k" can alter the original NPV ranking of the projects.

NPV method considers all cash flows over the entire project life cycle. This includes operation and maintenance costs also. In practice, to determine the value of "k" in advance for the entire project life cycle is complex, since it can alter due to many uncontrolled external factors.

IRR rate(R) is the discount rate (k) which equates the present value of cash inflows with the present values of the cash outflows i.e. when NPV is equal to zero.

**IRR** may be interpreted as the highest rate of interest a firm would be ready to pay on the funds
borrowed to finance the project, without being financially worse off, by repaying loan - principal and accurued
interest - out of cash inflows generated by the project.

IRR may be referred to as break-even rate of borrowing from the bank or lender.

• Difference between NPV and IRR

• Difference between Fixed Cost and Variable Cost

• Difference between ES,EF,LS,LF

• Difference between free float and total float

• Difference between PDM and AOA network diagram

• Difference between agile and scrum

• Difference between lean and adaptive software development